How is gas delivered to consumers

If to imagine that gas trunklines are the arteries of the gas transmission system, than gas distribution pipelines and household piping are its capillaries.

Gas distribution

If to imagine that gas trunklines are the arteries of the gas transmission system, than gas distribution pipelines and household piping are its capillaries.


Stages of gas pressure reduction

11.8 MPa – pressure level inside gas trunklines running onshore.
Gas pressure is reduced to 1.2 MPa at gas distribution stations (GDS) on the way to consumers.
0.003 MPa – maximum gas pressure allowed in households. Pressure is lowered at gas regulation stations (GRS) down to the level required for consumers.

Apart from reducing gas pressure, GDS and GRS maintain the required outlet pressure. Besides, at a GDS gas is also treated, dehydrated and odorized (specific smell is added to gas).

Depending on a consumer category, there are different types of gas distribution pipelines: low pressure gas pipelines – for supplying gas to households, middle- and high pressure ones (Category I and Category II) – for conveying gas to industrial enterprises.

  Industrial enterprises Households
Pipeline pressure,
Category I

Category II
Middle Low
Operating pressure 1.6 1.2 0.6 0.3 0.003 MPa
Type of supplied gas LPG Natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)

Indoor gas piping

Indoor gas piping is used to bring gas directly to a gas cooker. Indoor gas piping is laid from a building exterior to a connection point of gas equipment located inside.

Construction norms and rules

All requirements applied to the gas transmission system are rigidly brought under regulation, and spelled out in the Construction Standards and Norms (so-called SNiP Standards).

For instance, the Gas Distribution Systems SNiP Standard envisages that PVC and steel pipes must be used when laying underground gas pipes. For onshore and aboveground gas pipelines – steel pipes, for low pressure indoor gas piping – use of steel and copper pipes is allowed.

Gas emergency phone number – 04 (in Russia)

Household gas equipment

The gas supply chain, from a field to households, does not stop at the moment when gas is supplied to the indoor piping. Household gas equipment is an important link in this chain.

Household gas equipment embraces all gas appliances located in a residential house, including gas cookers, hobs, ovens, hot water heaters, boilers, gas meters and gas piping of an apartment block or a residential house.

Anyone can purchase any gas equipment to be utilized in the house – most importantly, it should be in compliance with the specifications. Only a representative of the specialized company authorized to work with such kind of equipment, may install and hook it up. Household gas equipment has to be serviced by a gas distribution organization which has an emergency service subunit (or has an agreement on providing emergency services).

Household gas equipment is compulsorily checked once a year. Gasmen give one week notice before the check. It is better to wait for them; otherwise, there would be a chance for gas providers to halt gas supplies. Experts of Gorgaz (municipal gas supplier) and a regional gas company will also check readings of the gas meter and will make sure that the seal on it is not broken.

A gas payment has to be made once a month, no later than on the 10th day from the start of each month, following the delivery month. If the payment is delayed for three months, gas supplies may be terminated. Gas deliveries may also be stopped because of the gas equipment fault or if the equipment certificate is unavailable.

Every new household consumer pays for gas according to the gas meter readings. There is also another basis for payments – according to the gas consumption rates: the number of household occupants, the type of gas equipment and the room space to be heated. The price for Gorgaz fitter’s services is set in the price lists approved by the relevant authorities of a Russian Federation constituent.

Household gas equipment is produced by Gazmash (part of Gazprom Group) that comprises six enterprises in Russia (Darina, Lada, Neva, Terra, Flama brands) and Brestgazapparat (Gefest trademark).

Unlike the propane-butane mix, methane can be condensed only in low temperatures, approximately minus 162 degrees Celsius.

Autonomous gasification

Every year Gazprom channels several dozen billion rubles into gasification of Russian regions. But it is not always cost effective to supply a settlement with pipeline gas. Sometimes, it is more reasonable to carry out autonomous gasification in remote and sparsely populated areas.

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) can be used for autonomous gasification.

Historically, LPG (propane-butane mix) was the first to spread out. One of the LPG advantages is that it can be condensed at regular temperatures, and just between 10 and 15 Ata. Besides, for transportation purposes it is enough to use a steel cylinder with wall thickness between 4 and 5 millimeters.


During the LPG gasification, fuel is delivered by LPG tank trucks and afterwards is transferred into special storage reservoirs called gas holders. Their capacity may vary depending on the volume and the number of premises (both residential and industrial) to be heated. There are two types of storage reservoirs: underground and aboveground.


The Russian climate requires that underground storage reservoirs are buried at the frost-proof depth – no less than 0.6 meters from the reservoir top.

During autonomous gasification with LNG, gas is liquefied at a small-scale LNG plant and subsequently delivered to consumers by special gas (methane) tank trucks. Liquefied gas is stored in cryogenic isothermal tanks and after regasification is conveyed in the gaseous state to industrial facilities and households via gas pipelines.