Availability of gas trunklines is barely enough for gas to be delivered to ultimate consumers. In order for you to watch a blue flame dancing on the stove burner, gas should flow from a gas trunkline to a gas distribution pipeline, and afterwards run through a household piping.
Associated petroleum gas (APG) is gas dissolved in oil. Associated petroleum gas is produced in the process of oil production, so it is actually a derivative. But APG itself is also a valuable raw material for further processing.
Liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) are produced from associated petroleum gas. These are pure gases or special mixtures that can be used to heat buildings, to produce petrochemicals and as a motor fuel.
After gas has been extracted from the land or sea subsurface, it needs to be delivered to consumers. The length of gas pipelines and gas distribution networks multiply exceeds the circumference of the Earth.
Prospecting new fields is the job of geologists and geoscientists. They have technical and chemical means which help identify accumulations of hydrocarbons fairly precisely. However, the only way to know for sure is to drill a well.
Natural gas rises up the well using natural energy. It is produced in America, Europe, Africa, and other regions. One-fifth of the global production falls on Gazprom.
Methane should be extracted from mines to prevent explosions. The United States was the first country that decided to turn it into a commercial enterprise. Ten per cent of gas is produced there using this technique. Production from coal beds is promising in Russia as well.
Sea can go several kilometers deep. Laying a pipe at the bottom is a challenge. However, 6,000 kilometers of pipelines are laid at the bottom of the North Sea, some of which have been there for 40 years already.
How it works
109 terms in the glossary